Yoga Dictionary

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Asana - 

yoga sutra 2.46 sthira sukham asanam

A steady, stable or motionless, position with comfort or ease is known as asana or posture.
  • sthira = steady, stable
  • sukham = comfortable, pleasant
  • asanam = posture
Asana - Posture - 

2.46 sthiram sukham asanam

A steady, stable or motionless, position with comfort or ease is known as asana or posture.
  • sthiram = steady, stable
  • sukham = comfortable, pleasant
  • asanam = posture
Ashtanga Yoga - 

2.29 yama niyama asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhi ashta-angani

The eight limbs, or steps of Yoga are the code pf conducts of self-regulation or restraint (yamas), observances or practices of self-training (niyamas), posture (asana), expansion of breath and prana (pranayama), withdrawal of the senses (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and union, liberation (samadhi).  
  • yama = code of conducts, moral abstinences, self-regulations
  • niyama = observances, self-training
  • asana = posture (from the root aas, which means "to sit")
  • pranayama = expansion of breath and prana
  • pratyahara = withdrawal of the senses
  • dharana = concentration
  • dhyana = meditation
  • samadhi = Union, Liberation, deep absorption in meditation
  • ashta = eight
  • angani = limbs, steps
Ashtanga Yoga -  Yoga of Eight limbs or step detailed in yoga sutras of patanjali. These eight limbs are yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, samadhi.
Dharna -Concentration - 

Yoga Sutra3.1 deshah bandhah chittasya dharana

Dharana is 6th limb of ashtanga yoga. Dharana or Concentration is the process of holding or focussing the awareness or mind onto one object or place.

  • deshah = place, object, point
  • bandhah = binding to, holding, uniting
  • chittasya = awareness, consciousness
  • dharana = concentration
Dhyana - Meditation - 

3.2 tatra pratyaya ekatanata dhyanam

From above (Dharana) when mind or awareness is completely absorbed in that one point or object of concentratipn is know as dhyana or meditation. This is 7th limb of ashtanga yoga.
  • tatra = there
  • pratyaya = awareness, the feeling, cognition
  • ekatanata = uninterrupted attention
  • dhyanam = meditation
Hatha-Yoga -  Hatha Yoga - origins from HA and THA. Ha means solar, or masculine energy and Tha represents the feminine, or lunar energy. Hatha Yoga is set of postures, pranayama, cleansing practices, mudras and visualisations to re-unite or balance Ha-Tha together and one becomes a complete of holistic being. Hatha-Yoga Pradipika, and Gheranda Samhita are some of the main scriptures on Hatha-Yoga.
Kriya Yoga - 

Yoga Sutras- Chapter 2.1

tapah svadhyaya ishvara-pranidhana kriya-yogah

Yoga in the form of action (kriya yoga) has three parts: 1) practice and austerity (tapas), 2) self-study and self-reflection in respect of practices (svadhyaya), and 3) devotion and merging into the creative divine source from which we manifested (ishvara pranidhana).
  • tapah = practice, austerity
  • svadhyaya = self-study, self-reflection
  • ishvara = creative or divine source
  • pranidhana = dedication, devotion, surrendering
  • kriya-yogah = yoga of practice, action, practical yoga
Nau-anataraya- nine obstacles -  Nine Obstacles in Yoga sadhana are-
  • vyadhi = disease, illness
  • styana = lack of interest or zeal, idleness, procrastination, dullness
  • samshaya = indecision, doubt
  • pramada = carelessness, negligence
  • alasya = sloth, languor, laziness
  • avirati = sensuality, desires, craving
  • bhranti-darshana = false views or perception (bhranti = false; darshana = views, perception)
  • alabdha-bhumikatva = failing to attain stages of practice (alabdha = not obtaining; bhumikatva = stage, state, firm ground)
  • anavasthitatva = instability, slipping down, inability to maintain
  • chitta-vikshepa = distractions of the mind (chitta = mind field; vikshepa = distractions, diversions)
  • te = they are, these are
  • antarayah = obstacles
Niyama -  Living in harmony with nature or universal energy as a human being. These five are Shaucha (cleanliness), Samtosha (contentment), Tapas (mortification), Swadhyaya (self-study), and Isvara-pranidhana (self-surrender to God).
Panch-vrittis -  Five types of Whirlpools or mental and emotional activities. These five are-
    • pramana = real or valid cognition
    • viparyayah = unreal cognition, misconception
    • vikalpah = imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy,
    • nidra = sleep
    • smritayah = memory, remembering
Pancha Klesha - 

yoga sutras chapter 2.4

avidya asmita raga dvesha abhinivesha pancha klesha

There are five kinds of mental impressions or afflictions, modifications (kleshas): 1) ignorance- not knowing the truth or ignoring the truth (avidya), 2) I-ness, individuality, or egoism (asmita), 3) attachment or addiction to mental impressions or objects (raga), 4) aversion to thought patterns or objects (dvesha), and 5) clinging to life or objects for any cost as well as fear of loss or death.
  • avidya = ignorance, not knowing or denying the truth
  • asmita = I-ness or ego
  • raga = attraction
  • dvesha = aversion, hatred
  • abhinivesha = resistance to loss, fear of death, clinging to the life of
  • pancha = five
  • klesha =painful, afflicted, impure
Pancha Niyamas -  Five observances or self-training practices for living healthy and in harmony with our true nature. Shaucha- cleanliness, purity; samtosha- contentment or non-judgemental of fruits or outcomes; tapah- austerity or practicing all the spiritual principles; swadhyaya- self-study, or self-awareness; isvara-prashadhana- seeing all events as divine blessing.
Pancha Yamas -  Five Moral Restrains or restraining the lower animal behaviour patterns. These are Ahimsa- Non-violence; Satya- Truth or Honesty; Asteya- non-stealing; Brahmachariya- chastity or discipline or energy and action; Aparigraha- non-attatchement or non-greed.
Prana -  Vital or eternal energy in as ion root cause of creation, sustaining and destruction. Prana is catalytic energy or force in each and every change but still unaffected by all this. Prana is sub-classified in five types- Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, and Samana.
Pranayama - 

Yoga Sutra 2.49 tasmin sati shvasa prashvsah gati vichchhedah pranayamah

Once asana or posture is perfected retaining or expanding the unregulated inhaling and exhaling of breath and expansion of prana is pranayama.
  • tasmin = upon that, perfection of posture
  • sati = being mastered
  • shvasa = inhalation
  • prashvsah = exhalation
  • gati = unregulated movements
  • vichchhedah = slowing, softening or extending
  • pranayamah = expansion of prana, regulation of breath
Pranayama - 

2.49 tasmin sati shvasa prashvsah gati vichchhedah pranayamah

Once asana or posture is perfected retaining or expanding the unregulated inhaling and exhaling of breath and expansion of prana is pranayama.
  • tasmin = upon that, perfection of posture
  • sati = being mastered
  • shvasa = inhalation
  • prashvsah = exhalation
  • gati = unregulated movements
  • vichchhedah = slowing, softening or extending
  • pranayamah = expansion of prana, regulation of breath
Pratyahara - Sensory Withdrawl - 

2.54 sva vishaya asamprayoge chittasya svarupe anukarah iva indriyanam pratyaharah

When the senses (in yoga cognitive and action sense- indriyas) are not engaged with the corresponding external objects or stimulus in their mental realm, and instead engaged back into the mind-field from which they arose is fifth limb known as pratyahara.
  • sva = their own
  • vishaya = objects, realms, fields
  • asamprayoge = not coming into contact with, detachment
  • chittasya = of the mind field
  • svarupe = own form, own nature
  • anukarah = follow, be engaged with
  • iva = like, as though
  • indriyanam = of senses
  • pratyaharah = withdrawal of the senses
 
Raja Yoga -  RAJA YOGA or commonly known as ashtanga yoga of Patanjali is divided into eight steps or limbs. Raja means royal or king and patanjali's ashtanga yoga is highest form of yoga in comparison to hatha yoga, kundalini yoga, mantra yoga, tantra yoga, bhakti yoga, etc. 
Samadhi - Union, Enlightenment - 

3.3 tad eva artha matra nirbhasam svarupa shunyam iva samadhih

When the mind is completely absorbed in the object, point, form of concentration or its meaning and even looses its identity with itself is known as samadhi or enlightenment. This is 8th limb of ashtanga yoga.
  • tad = that
  • eva = the same
  • artha = object, place, meaning
  • matra = only
  • nirbhasam = appears
  • svarupa = own form, own nature
  • shunyam = empty
  • iva = as if
  • samadhih = union, liberation, enlightenment
 
Shavasana -  Shavasana - Corpse Pose, in yogic terms a state of deep relaxation. There are many tools or practices being used for shavasana practice like body awareness, auto-suggestion, colour visualisations, etc.
Suriya Namaskar -  Suriya Namaskar or sun-salutations are set of postures in flow or movement from one to other asana to evoke the solar energy, improve flexibility, strength, endurance and stamina as well as aligning body, mind and soul together.
Yama -  Restraining the lower senses, desires and behaviour patterns.  Ahimsha (non-killing), Satya (truthfulness), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmachariya (continence), and Aparigraha (non- greed).
yoga -  Union, Oneness- Yoga is originated from root YUJ means uniting or adding. Yoga is re-uniting self with the higher self. Yoga is path as well as goal. Yoga is way of healthy and holistic life style.